SAMPLES OF APA REFERENCING¹
(Based on the 5th Edition of APA Manual, 2001)
(First prepared in 1998 and subsequently revised in January 2000 and 2002)
1. Journal articles
Gruenberg, A. (1998). Creative stress management: Put your own oxygen mask on first. Young Children, 53(1), 38-42.
Negrón, E., & Ricklin, L. P. (1996). Meeting the needs of diverse learners in the social studies curriculum through collaborative methods of instruction. [Perspective]. Social Studies & the Young Learner, 9(2), 27-29.
Sakofs, M. (1998). Painting and Christopher Columbus: A story about metaphors for school change. The Journal of Experiential Education, 21(3), 108-11.
Sunal, D. W., Hodges, J. B., Sunal, C. S., Freeman, L. M., Whitaker, K. W., Edwards, L., et al. (2001). Teaching science in higher education: Staff development and barriers to change. School Science and Mathematics,101(5), 246-257.
· In articles such as. “perspective from a research” or a “letter to the editor” write [Perspective] or [Letter to the editor] within large brackets immediately after the title.
· Provide the names and initials of each author if the article has up to six authors. If there are more than six authors, use et al. after the sixth author's name.
· Order several works by the same author by the year of publication, the earliest first.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.
· Put the actual dates in dailies and weeklies.
3. Newsletter article
Negrón, E., & Greenspan, S. (1997,
Spring). Ethical dilemmas experienced by
school psychologists. The
4. Newsletter article, no authors
The new health-care lexicon. (1993, August/September). Copy Editor, 4, 1-2.
· In reference to a work with no author, move the title to the author position, before the date of publication.
5. Daily newspaper article, no author
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of
death from heart failure. (1993, July
1. One author
D. (1996). Starting points: How to set up
and run a writing workshop and much more.
Trawick-Smith, J. (2001). Early
childhood development: A multicultural perspective (3rd
2. Two authors
Haugland, S. W., & Wright, J. L. (1997). Young
children and technology: A world of discovery.
3. Two authors, Jr. in name, third edition
Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr.
(1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior
4. Group author (Government agency) as publisher
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association.
(2001). Publication manual of the
American Psychological Association (5th ed.).
5. Edited Book
6. An article or chapter in an edited book
Ernst, S. B.
(1995). Gender issues in books for
children and young adults. In S. Lehr
(Ed.), Battling dragons: Issues and
controversies in children's literature (pp. 66-78).
7. Book, no author or editor
(10th ed.). (1993).
· In text use (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
8. Edited encyclopedia or dictionary
Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980).
The new Grove dictionary of music
and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1-20).
9. Entry in an encyclopedia
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity.
In The new encyclopedia Britannica
(Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).
10. Several volumes in a multivolume edited work
Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963).
Psychology: A study of science
11. English translation of a book
Laplace, P. -S.
(1951). A philosophical essay on
probabilities (F. W.
Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.).
12. English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, reprint from another source
Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget’s theory (G. Gellerier & J. Langer, Trans.). In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive development to adolescence: A
reader (pp. 3-18).
· In text use the following parenthetical citation: (Piaget, 1970/1988)
13. Brochure, corporate author
Report available from
Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking
at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring
with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4).
Reynolds, R. J. (1996). Australian
education: An overview of a system adapting to a post-industrial economy.
2. Proceedings of meetings and Symposia
Koirala, H. P.
(1999). Teaching mathematics using everyday contexts: What if
academic mathematics is lost? In O. Zaslavsky (Ed.), Proceedings
of the 23rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of
Mathematics Education, Vol. 3 (pp. 161-168),
3. Unpublished paper presented at a meeting
Picard, T. (2000, December). Multicultural literature and student
self-efficacy towards reading. Paper presented at the National Reading
4. Poster session
Koirala, H. P. (1996, July). Conceptions
of probability. Poster session
presented at the 8th International Congress on Mathematics Education (ICME),
5. Unpublished doctoral dissertations and Master’s Theses
Singh, D. (1990). An
investigation into the effects of a child with spina
bifida on the family as perceived by mother. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
1. TV series
Miller, R. (Producer). (1989).
The mind [Television series].
Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On
3. Abstract on CD-Rom
Meyer, A. S., & Bock, K. (1992). The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? [CD-Rom]. Memory and Cognition, 20, 715-726. Abstract from: SilverPlatter File: PsycLIT Item: 80-16351.
4. On-line journal
Falk, R., & Well, A. D. (1997). Many faces of the correlation
coefficient. Journal of Statistics Education 5(3). Retrieved
5. On line Web-page
Dobush, K. (2001). Teaching and learning
Stoloff, D. L. (1997). Developing
educational signposts on the World Wide Web: A school-university cooperative
curriculum project. Retrieved
6. Software review
Swaminathan, S. (1995). [Review of the software Counting on Frank]. Teaching Children Mathematics, 2 (4), 246.
Reference Citations in Text
· When a work has two authors, cite both names every time.
· When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”.
· When authors number six or more, abbreviate second and subsequent authors as “et al.”
· If there are no page numbers in an electronic source, then use ¶ symbol or the abbreviation para. For example, as Stoloff (2000, para 5) points out " ."
· Use block quotations for more than 40 words. Begin the block quotations in a new line and indent the line five spaces from the left margin. If there are additional paragraphs, indent those paragraphs another five spaces.
include personal communications in the reference list. Cite them in text only as J. Turner [personal
· If you are using a secondary source, use it in text in the following way and also list the secondary source in the references. For example: Piaget's study (as cited in Koirala, 1995) indicated that…. In your references list only Koirala, 1995.
· All numbers 10 and above should be written in figures. However use the figure for number below 10 if it is used for comparison purpose. For example, 3 of 24 students. Other mathematical notations such as 2-year-olds, 2 weeks ago, 9 oranges, etc.
· Express in words for numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements, such as three conditions, one-tailed t test, five words each, nine pages.
¹ This handout provides only important elements of APA referencing. Students should plan on using the Publication Manual (2001) for detailed questions not answered by this handout. Although this handout is singled-spaced to save space, you need to double-space all reference entries.