(Based on the 5th Edition of APA Manual, 2001)


(First prepared in 1998 and subsequently revised in January 2000 and 2002)


Prepared by

Hari Koirala

Eastern Connecticut State University


A.  Periodicals


1.  Journal articles

Gruenberg, A. (1998).  Creative stress management: Put your own oxygen mask on first.  Young Children, 53(1), 38-42.

Negrón, E., & Ricklin, L. P. (1996).  Meeting the needs of diverse learners in the social studies curriculum through collaborative methods of instruction.  [Perspective].  Social Studies & the Young Learner, 9(2), 27-29.

Sakofs, M. (1998).  Painting and Christopher Columbus: A story about metaphors for school change.  The Journal of Experiential Education, 21(3), 108-11.

Sunal, D. W., Hodges, J. B., Sunal, C. S., Freeman, L. M., Whitaker, K. W., Edwards, L., et al. (2001). Teaching science in higher education: Staff development and barriers to change.  School Science and Mathematics,101(5), 246-257.

·         In articles such as. “perspective from a research” or a “letter to the editor” write [Perspective] or [Letter to the editor] within large brackets immediately after the title.

·         Provide the names and initials of each author if the article has up to six authors.  If there are more than six authors, use et al. after the sixth author's name.

·         Order several works by the same author by the year of publication, the earliest first.

2.  Magazine

Henry, W. A., III.  (1990, April 9).  Beyond the melting pot.  Time, 135, 28-31.

·         Put the actual dates in dailies and weeklies.

3.  Newsletter article

Negrón, E., & Greenspan, S. (1997, Spring).  Ethical dilemmas experienced by school psychologists.  The Connecticut School Psychologist, 4(3), 7-13.

4.  Newsletter article, no authors

The new health-care lexicon.  (1993, August/September).  Copy Editor, 4, 1-2.

·         In reference to a work with no author, move the title to the author position, before the date of publication.

5.  Daily newspaper article, no author

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure.  (1993, July 15).  The Washington Post, p. A12.

B.  Books

1.  One author

Rothermel, D. (1996). Starting points: How to set up and run a writing workshop and much more.  Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.

Trawick-Smith, J. (2001).  Early childhood development: A multicultural perspective (3rd ed.).  Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.

2.  Two authors

Haugland, S. W., & Wright, J. L. (1997).  Young children and technology: A world of discovery.  Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

3.  Two authors, Jr. in name, third edition

Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987).  People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.).  New York: McGraw-Hill.

4.  Group author (Government agency) as publisher

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989).  Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics.  Reston, VA: Author.

American Psychological Association. (2001).  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).  Washington, DC: Author.

5.  Edited Book

Holland, K., Hungerford, R., & Ernst, S. B. (Eds.). (1993).  Journeying: Children responding to literature.  Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

6.  An article or chapter in an edited book

Ernst, S. B. (1995).  Gender issues in books for children and young adults.  In S. Lehr (Ed.), Battling dragons: Issues and controversies in children's literature (pp. 66-78). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

7.  Book, no author or editor

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).  (1993).  Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

·         In text use (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)

8.  Edited encyclopedia or dictionary

Sadie, S. (Ed.).  (1980).  The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1-20).  London: Macmillan.

9.  Entry in an encyclopedia

Bergmann, P. G. (1993).  Relativity.  In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).  Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

10.  Several volumes in a multivolume edited work

Koch, S. (Ed.).  (1959-1963).  Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1-6).  New York: McGraw-Hill.

11.  English translation of a book

Laplace, P. -S. (1951).  A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.).  New York: Dover.  (Original work published 1814)

12.  English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, reprint from another source

Piaget, J. (1988).  Extracts from Piaget’s theory (G. Gellerier & J. Langer, Trans.).  In K. Richardson & S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18).  Hillslade, NJ: Erlbaum.  (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703-732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley)

·         In text use the following parenthetical citation: (Piaget, 1970/1988)

13.  Brochure, corporate author

Eastern Connecticut State University.  (2002).  University hours: Spring 2002.  [Brochure].  Willimantic, CT: Author.

C.  Research reports, presentations, and dissertations

1.  Report available from Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)

Mead, J. V. (1992).  Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4).  East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research of Teacher Learning.  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 346 082)

Reynolds, R. J. (1996).  Australian education: An overview of a system adapting to a post-industrial economy.  Willimantic, CT: Eastern Connecticut State University.  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 393 155)

2.  Proceedings of meetings and Symposia

Koirala, H. P. (1999).  Teaching mathematics using everyday contexts: What if academic mathematics is lost?  In O. Zaslavsky (Ed.), Proceedings of the 23rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 3 (pp. 161-168), Haifa, Israel: Technion-Israel Institute of Technology.

3.  Unpublished paper presented at a meeting

Picard, T. (2000, December).  Multicultural literature and student self-efficacy towards reading. Paper presented at the National Reading Conference (NRC), Scottsdale, AZ.

4.  Poster session

Koirala, H. P. (1996, July).  Conceptions of probability.  Poster session presented at the 8th International Congress on Mathematics Education (ICME), Seville, Spain.

5.  Unpublished doctoral dissertations and Master’s Theses

Singh, D. (1990).  An investigation into the effects of a child with spina bifida on the family as perceived by mother.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

D.  TV series, CD, and other Electronic media

1.  TV series

Miller, R. (Producer).  (1989).  The mind [Television series].  New York: WNET.

2.  CD

Shocked, M. (1992).  Over the waterfall.  On Arkansas traveler [CD].  New York: PolyGram Music.


3.  Abstract on CD-Rom

Meyer, A. S., & Bock, K. (1992).  The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? [CD-Rom].  Memory and Cognition, 20, 715-726.  Abstract from: SilverPlatter File: PsycLIT Item: 80-16351.

4.  On-line journal

Falk, R., & Well, A. D. (1997).  Many faces of the correlation coefficient.  Journal of Statistics Education 5(3).  Retrieved June 5, 1999, from

5.  On line Web-page

Dobush, K. (2001). Teaching and learning homepage.  Retrieved January 28, 2002, from 

Stoloff, D. L. (1997).  Developing educational signposts on the World Wide Web: A school-university cooperative curriculum project.  Retrieved June 12, 1998, from

6.  Software review

Swaminathan, S. (1995).  [Review of the software Counting on Frank].  Teaching Children Mathematics, 2 (4), 246.


Reference Citations in Text


·        When a work has two authors, cite both names every time.

·        When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”.

·        When authors number six or more, abbreviate second and subsequent authors as “et al.”

·        If there are no page numbers in an electronic source, then use ¶ symbol or the abbreviation para.  For example, as Stoloff (2000, para 5) points out "     ."

·        Use block quotations for more than 40 words.  Begin the block quotations in a new line and indent the line five spaces from the left margin.  If there are additional paragraphs, indent those paragraphs another five spaces. 

·        Don’t include personal communications in the reference list.  Cite them in text only as J. Turner [personal communication, February 3, 1998].

·        If you are using a secondary source, use it in text in the following way and also list the secondary source in the references.  For example: Piaget's study (as cited in Koirala, 1995) indicated that….  In your references list only Koirala, 1995.

·        All numbers 10 and above should be written in figures.  However use the figure for number below 10 if it is used for comparison purpose.  For example, 3 of 24 students.  Other mathematical notations such as 2-year-olds, 2 weeks ago, 9 oranges, etc. 

·        Express in words for numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements, such as three conditions, one-tailed t test, five words each, nine pages. 

¹ This handout provides only important elements of APA referencing.  Students should plan on using the Publication Manual (2001) for detailed questions not answered by this handout.  Although this handout is singled-spaced to save space, you need to double-space all reference entries.